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281. Of special applications

Of special applications, the following may be noticed:

a. Accordance, equality, likeness, and the like: thus, samáṁ jyótiḥ sū́ryeṇa (AV.) a brightness equal with the sun; yeṣām ahaṁ na pādarajasā tulyaḥ (MBh.) to the dust of whose feet I am not equal.

b. Price (by which obtained): thus, daçábhiḥ krīṇāti dhenúbhiḥ (RV.) he buys with ten kine; gavāṁ çatasahasreṇa dīyatāṁ çabalā mama (R.) let Çabalā be given me for a hundred thousand cows; sa te ’kṣahṛdayaṁ dātā rājā, ’çvahṛdayena vāi (MBh.) the king will give thee the secret science of dice in return for that of horses.

c. Medium, and hence also space or distance or road, traversed: thus, udnā́ ná nā́vam anayanta (RV.) they brought [him] as it were a ship by water; é ’há yātam pathíbhir devayā́nāiḥ (RV.) come hither by god-traveled paths; jagmur vihāyasā (MBh.) they went off through the air.

d. Time passed through, or by the lapse of which anything is brought about: thus, vidarbhān yātum icchāmy ekāhnā (MBh.) I wish to go to Vidarbha in the course of one day; te ca kālena mahatā yāuvanam pratipedire (R.) and they in a long time attained adolescence; tatra kālena jāyante mānavā dīrghajīvinaḥ(M.) 'there in time are born men long-lived. This use of the instrumental borders upon that of the locative and ablative.

e. The part of the body on (or by) which anything is borne is usually expressed by the instrumental: as, kukkuraḥ skandheno ’hyate (H.) a dog is carried on the shoulder; and this construction is extended to such cases as tulayā kṛtam (H.) put on (i.e. so as to be carried by) a balance.

f. Not infrequently used are such phrases as bahunā kim pralāpena (R.) 'what is the use of (i.e. is gained by) much talking? ko nu me jīvitenā ’rthaḥ (MBh.)what object is life to me? nīrujas tu kim āuṣadhāiḥ (H.) but what has a well man to do with medicines?

g. An instrumental of accompaniment is occasionally used almost or quite with the value of an instrumental absolute: thus, na tvayā ’tra mayā ’vasthitena kā ’pi cintā kāryā (Pañc.) with me at hand, thou need’st feel no anxiety whatever on this point.