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282. Construction of a passive verb

a. The construction of a passive verb (or participle) with an instrumental of the agent is common from the earliest period, and becomes decidedly more so later, the passive participle with instrumental taking to no small extent the place of an active verb with its subject. Thus, yaména dattáḥ (RV.) given by Yama; ṛ́ṣibhir ī́ḍyaḥ(RV.) to be praised by sages; vyādhena jālaṁ vistīrṇam (H.) by the hunter a net [was] spread; tac chrutvā jaradgaveno ’ktam (H.) Jaradgava, hearing this, said; mayā gantavyam (H.) I shall go. A predicate to the instrumental subject of such a construction is, of course, also in the instrumental: thus, adhunā tavā ’nucareṇa mayā sarvathā bhavitavyam (H.) henceforth I shall always by thy companion; avahitāir bhavitavyam bhavadbhiḥ (Vikr.) you must be attentive.

b. A causative verb sometimes takes an instrumental instead of an accusative as second object: thus, tāṁ çvabhiḥ khādayed rājā (M.) the king should have her devoured by dogs; tā́ váruṇenā ’grāhayat (MS.) he caused Varuṇa to seize them.