Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎IV. DECLENSION‎ > ‎

287. In its more distinctive sense

In its more distinctive sense, as signifying for, for the benefit of, with reference to, and the like, the dative is used freely, and in a great variety of constructions. And this use passes over into that of the dative of end or purpose, which is extremely common. Thus, íṣuṁ kṛṇvānā́ ásanāya (AV.) making an arrow for hurling; gṛhṇā́mi te sāubhagatvā́ya hástam (RV.) I take thy hand in order to happiness; rāṣṭrā́ya máhyam badhyatāṁ sapátnebhyaḥ parābhúve (AV.) be it bound on in order to royalty for me, in order to destruction for my enemies.

a. Such a dative is much used predicatively (and oftenest with the copula omitted), in the sense of makes for, tends toward; also is intended for, and so must; or is liable to, and so can. Thus, upadeço mūrkhāṇām prakopāya na çāntaye (H.) good counsel [tends] to the exasperation, not the conciliation, of fools; sa ca tasyāḥ saṁtoṣāya nā ’bhavat (H.) and he was not to her satisfaction; sugopā́ asi ná dábhāya (RV.) thou art a good herdsman, not one for cheating (i.e. not to be cheated).

b. These uses of the dative are in the older language especially illustrated by the dative infinitives, for which see 982.