Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎IV. DECLENSION‎ > ‎

300. Genitive is very little used adverbially

 a. The genitive is very little used adverbially; a few genitives of time occur in the older language: as, aktos by night, vastos by day; and there are found later such cases as kasya cit kālasya (Ç.) after a certain time; tataḥ kālasya mahataḥ prayayāu (R.) then after a long time he went forth.

b. A genitive, originally of possession, passing over into one of general concernment, comes in the later language (the construction is unknown earlier) to be used absolutely, with an agreeing participle, or quite rarely an adjective. From such cases as the following—paçyato bakamūrkhasya nakulāir bhakṣitāḥ sutāḥ (H.) of the foolish heron, while he looked on, the young were eaten by the ichneumons, or gato ‘rdharātraḥ kathāḥ kathayato mama (KSS.) half my night was passed in telling stories, or kartavyasya karmaṇaḥ kṣipram akriyamāṇasya kālaḥ pibati tadrasam (H.) of a work needing to be done but left undone time quickly drinks up its essence—come into currency, by increasing independence of the genitive, such other cases as: divaṁ jagāma munīnām paçyatāṁ tadā (R.) he went then to heaven, the ascetics looking on; evaṁ lālapatas tasya devadūtas tadā ’bhyetya vākyam āha (MBh.) as he thus lamented, a divine messenger coming addressed him; iti vādina evā ’sya dhenur āvavṛte vanāt (Ragh.) while he thus spoke, the cow came from the forest. The genitive always indicates a living actor, and the participle is usually one of seeing or hearing or uttering, especially the former. The construction is said by the Hindu grammarians to convey an implication of disregard or despite; and such is often to be recognized in it, though not prevailingly.