Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎V. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.‎ > ‎

352. Monosyllabic stems in composition

Monosyllabic stems in composition. When the nouns above described occur as a final member of a compound, or when any root in ā or ī or ū is found in a like position, the inflection of an ā-stem is as above. But ī- and ū-stems follow a divided usage: the final vowel before a vowel-ending is either converted into a short vowel and semivowel (iy or uv, as above) or into a semivowel simply (y or v). The accent is nowhere thrown forward upon the endings; and therefore, when ī and ū become y and v, the resulting syllable is circumflex (83–4). Thus:

Masc. and fem. Singular:
N. V.-dhī́s-bhū́s
A.-dhíyam-dhyàm-bhúvam-bhvàm
I.-dhíyā-dhyā̀-bhúvā-bhvā̀
D.-dhíye-dhyè-bhúve-bhvè
Ab. G.-dhíyas-dhyàs-bhúvas-bhvàs
L.-dhíyi-dhyì-bhúvi-bhvì
Dual:
N. A. V.-dhíyāu-dhyaù-bhúvāu-bhvāù
I. D. Ab.-dhī́bhyām-bhū́bhyām
G. L.-dhíyos-dhyòs-bhúvos-bhvòs
Plural:
N. A. V.-dhíyas-dhyàs-bhúvas-bhvàs
I.-dhī́bhis-bhū́bhis
D. Ab.-dhī́bhyas-bhū́bhyas
G.-dhíyām-dhyā̀m-bhúvām-bhvā̀m
-dhī́nām-bhū́nām
L.-dhī́ṣu-bhū́ṣu

a. As to the admissibility of the fuller endings āi, ās, and ām in the singular (feminine), grammatical authorities are somewhat at variance; but they are never found in the Veda, and have been omitted from the above scheme as probably unreal.

b. If two consonants precede the final ī or ū, the dissyllabic forms, with iy and uv, are regularly written; after one consonant, the usage is varying. The grammarians prescribe iy and uv when the monosyllabic stem has more the character of a noun, and y and v when it is more purely a verbal root with participial value. No such distinction, however, is to be seen in the Veda—where, moreover, the difference of the two forms is only graphic, since the - and -forms and the rest are always to be read as dissyllabic:  or īā and  or ūā, and so on.

c. As to neuter stems for such adjectives, see 367.