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371. Declension IV - Endings

Endings: These are in general the normal, but with the following exceptions:

a. The nom. sing. (masc. and fem.) ends always in ā (for original ars or ārs). The voc. sing. ends in ar.

b. The accus. sing. adds am to the (strengthened) stem; the accus. pl. has (like i- and u-stems) n as masc. ending and s as fem. ending, with the  lengthened before them.

c. The abl.-gen. sing. changes  to ur (or us: 169 b).

d. The gen. pl. (as in i and u-stems) inserts n before ām, and lengthens the stem-final before it. But the  of nṛ́ may also remain short.

e. The above are the rules of the later language. The older presents certain deviations from them. Thus:

f. The ending in nom.-acc.-voc. du. is (as universally in the Veda) regularly ā instead of āu (only ten āu-forms in RV.).

g. The i of loc. sing. is lengthened to ī in a few words: thus, kartárī.

h. In the gen. pl., the RV. has once svásrām, without inserted n; and narā́m instead of nṛṇā́m is frequent.

i. Other irregularities of nṛ́ are the sing. dat. náre, gen. náras, and loc. nári. The Veda writes always nṛṇā́m in gen. pl., but its  is in a majority of cases metrically long.

j. The stem usṛ́ f. dawn has the voc. sing. uṣar, the gen. sing. usrás; and the accus. pl. also usrás, and loc. sing. usrā́m (which is metrically trisyllable: usṛā́m), as if in analogy with ī and ū-stems. Once occurs usrí in loc. sing., but it is to be read as if the regular trisyllable form, uṣúri (for the exchange of s and , see 181 a).

k. From stṛ́ come only tā́ras (apparently) and stṛ́bhis.

l. In the gen.-loc. du., the r is almost always to be read as a separate syllable, , before the ending os: thus, pitṛós, etc. On the contrary, nánāndari is once to be readnánāndri.

m. For neuter forms, see below, 375.