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375. Neuter forms

Neuter forms. The grammarians prescribe a complete neuter declension also for bases in tṛ, precisely accordant with that of vā́ri or mádhu (above, 339, 341). Thus, for example:


Sing.Du.Plur.
N. A.dhātṛ́dhātṛ́ṇīdhātṝ́́ṇi
I.dhātṛ́ṇādhātṛ́bhyāmdhātṛ́bhis
G.dhātṛ́ṇasdhātṛ́ṇosdhātṝṇā́m
V.dhā́tṛ, dhā́tardhā́tṛṇīdhā́tṝṇi

a. The weakest cases, however (as of i- and u-stems used adjectively: 344), are allowed also to be formed like the corresponding masculine cases: thus, dhātrā́ etc.

b. No such neuter forms chance to occur in the Veda, but they begin to appear in the Brāhmaṇas, under influence of the common tendency (compare Germ. Retter, Retterin; Fr. menteur, menteuse) to give this nomen agentis a more adjective character, making it correspond in gender with the noun which it (appositively) qualifies. Thus, we have in TB. bhartṛ́ and janayitṛ́, qualifying antárikṣam; and bhartṝ́́ṇi and janayitṝ́́ṇi, qualifying nákṣatrāṇi; as, in M., grahītṝṇi, qualifying indriyāṇi.

c. When a feminine noun is to be qualified in like manner, the usual feminine derivative in ī is employed: thus, in TB., bhartryàs and bhartryāù, janayitryàs andjanayitryāù, qualifying ā́pas and ahorātré; and such instances are not uncommon.

d. The RV. shows the same tendency very curiously once in the accus. pl. mātṝ́́n, instead of mātṝ́́s, in apposition with masculine nouns (RV. x. 35.2).

e. Other neuter forms in RV. are sthātúr gen. sing., dhmātárī loc. sing.; and for the nom. sing., instead of -tṛ, a few more or less doubtful cases, sthātar, sthātúr,dhartári.