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383. Root-stems - stems of this division

A. Root-stems, and those inflected like them.

The stems of this division may be classified as follows:

I. a. Root-stems, having in them no demonstrable element added to a root: thus, ṛ́c verse, gír song, pád foot, díç, direction, máh (V.) great.

b. Such stems, however, are not always precisely identical in form with the root: thus, vā́c from √vac, sráj from √sṛj, mū́ṣ from √muṣ, vríç from √vraçc (?), úṣ from √vas shine; — from roots in final  come stems in ir and ur: thus, gír, ā-çír, stír; júr, túr, dhúr, púr, múr, stúr, sphúr; and psúr from √psar.

c. With these may be ranked the stems with reduplicated root, as cikít, yavīyúdh, vánīvan, sasyád.

d. Words of this division in uncompounded use are tolerably frequent in the older language: thus, in RV. are found more than a hundred of them; in AV., about sixty; but in the classical Sanskrit the power of using any root at will in this way is lost, and the examples are comparatively few. In all periods, however, the adjective use as final of a compound is very common (see below, 401).

e. As to the infinitive use of various cases of the root-noun, see 971.

II. f. Stems made by the addition of t to a final short vowel of a root.

g. No proper root-stem ends in a short vowel, although there are (354) examples of transfer of such to short-vowel-declensions; but i or u or  adds a t to make a declinable form: thus, -jít, -çrút, -kṛ́t. Roots in , however, as has just been seen (b), also make stems in ir or ur.

h. As regards the frequency and use of these words, the same is true as was stated above respecting root-stems. The Veda offers examples of nearly thirty such formations, a few of them (mít, rít, stút, hrút, vṛ́t, and dyút if this is taken from dyu) in independent use. Of roots in , t is added by kṛ, dhṛ, dhvṛ, bhṛ, vṛ, sṛ, spṛ, hṛ, and hvṛ. The roots  (or gam) and han also make -gát and -hát by addition of the t to an abbreviated form in a (thus, adhvagát, dyugát, dvigat, navagát, andsaṁhát).

III. i. Monosyllabic (also a few apparently reduplicated) stems not certainly connectible with any verbal root in the language, but having the aspect of root-stems, as containing no traceable suffix: thus, tvác skin, páth road, hṛ́d heart, áp and vā́r water, dvā́r door, ā́s mouth, kakúbh and kakúd, summit.

j. Thirty or forty such words are found in the older language, and some of them continue in later use, while others have been transferred to other modes of declension or have become extinct.

k. Stems more or less clearly derivative, but made with suffixes of rare or even isolated occurrence. Thus:

1. derivatives (V.) from prepositions with the suffix vat: arvāvát, āvát, udvát, nivát, parāvát, pravát, saṁvát; — 2. derivatives (V.) in tāt (perhaps abbreviated fromtāti), in a few isolated forms: thus, uparátāt, devátāt, vṛkátāt, satyátāt, sarvátāt; — 3. other derivatives in t preceded by various vowels: thus, daçát,vehát, vahát, sravát, saçcát, vāghát; nápāt; taḍít, divít, yoṣít, rohít, sarít, harít; marút; yákṛt, çákṛt; and the numerals for 30, 40, 50, triṅçátetc. (475); — 4. stems in ad: thus, dṛṣád, dhṛṣád, bhasád, vanád, çarád, samád; — 5. stems in j preceded by various vowels: thus, tṛṣṇáj, dhṛṣáj, sanáj,bhiṣáj; uçíj, vaṇíj, bhuríj, niṇíj (?); ásṛj; — 6. a few stems ending in a sibilant apparently formative: thus, jñā́s, -dās, bhā́s, mā́s, bhī́ṣ; — 7. a remnant of unclassifiable cases, such as viṣṭáp, vípāç, kápṛth, çurúdh, iṣídh, pṛkṣúdh, raghát (?), sarágh, visrúh, uṣṇíh, kaváṣ.