384. Root-stems - Gender

Gender. The root-stems are regularly feminine as nomen actionis, and masculine as nomen agentis (which is probably only a substantive use of their adjective value: below, 400). But the feminine noun, without changing its gender, is often also used concretely: e.g., druh (√druh be inimical) means harming, enmity, and also harmer, hater, enemy — thus bordering on the masculine value. And some of the feminines have a completely concrete meaning. Through the whole division, the masculines are much less numerous than the feminines, and the neuters rarest of all.

a. The independent neuter stems are hṛ́d (also -hārd), dám, vā́r, svàr, mā́s flesh, ā́s mouth, bhā́s, dós (with which may be mentioned the indeclinables çā́m and yós); also the apparent derivatives yákṛt, çákṛt, kápṛth, ásṛj.