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415. Vedic etc. Irregularities

Vedic etc. Irregularities, a. In the older language, the endings -asam (acc. sing.) and -asas (generally nom.-acc. pl.; once or twice gen.-abl. sing.) of stems in as are not infrequently contracted to -ām, -ās — e. g. āçā́m, vedhā́m; surā́dhās, ánāgās — and out of such forms grow, both earlier and later, substitute-stems in ā, as āçā́,jarā́, medhā́. So from other forms grow stems in a and in asa, which exchange more or less with those in as through the whole history of the language.

b. More scattering irregularities may be mentioned, as follows: 1. The usual masc. and fem. du. ending in ā instead of āu; — 2. uṣás f. dawn often prolongs its a in the other strong cases, as in the nom. sing.: thus, uṣā́sam, uṣā́sā, uṣā́sas (and once in a weak case, uṣā́sas); and in its instr. pl. occurs once (RV.) uṣádbhis instead ofuṣóbhis; — 3. from toçás is once (RV.) found a similar dual, toçā́sā; — 4. from svávas and svátavas occur in RV. a nom. sing. masc. in vān, as if from a stem invant; and in the Brāhmaṇas is found the dat.-abl. pl. of like formation svátavadbhyas.

c. The stems in is and us also show transitions to stems in i and u, and in iṣa and uṣa. From janús is once (RV.) made the nom. sing, janū́s, after the manner of anas-stem (cf. also janūrvā́sas ÇB.).