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458. The active participles of the perfect tense-system

F. Perfect Participles in vāṅs.

The active participles of the perfect tense-system are quite peculiar as regards the modifications of their stem. In the strong cases, including the nom.-acc.-voc. pl. neut, the form of their suffix is वांस् vāṅs, which becomes, by regular process (150), vān in the nom. sing., and which is shortened to वन् van in the voc. sing. In the weakest cases, the suffix is contracted into उष् uṣ. In the middle cases, including the nom.-acc.-voc. neut. sing., it is changed to वत् vat.

a. A union-vowel i, if present in the strong and middle cases, disappears in the weakest, before uṣ.