467. The suffixes of primary derivation

The suffixes of primary derivation are ईयस् īyas (or ईयांस् īyāṅs) for the comparative and इष्ठ iṣṭha for the superlative. The root before them is accented, and usually strengthened by gunating, if capable of it — or, in some cases, by nasalization or prolongation. They are much more frequently and freely used in the oldest language than later; in the classical Sanskrit, only a limited number of such comparatives and superlatives are accepted in use; and these attach themselves in meaning for the most part to other adjectives from the same root, which seem to be their corresponding positives; but in part also they are artificially connected with other words, unrelated with them in derivation.

a. Thus, from √kṣip hurl come kṣépīyas and kṣépiṣṭha, which belong in meaning to kṣiprá quick; from √vṛ encompass come várīyas and váriṣṭha, which belong to urú broad; while, for example, kánīyas and kániṣṭha are attached by the grammarians to yúvan young, or álpa small; and várṣīyas and várṣiṣṭha to vṛddháold.