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475. The simple cardinal numerals

NUMERALS.

The simple cardinal numerals for the first ten numbers (which are the foundation of the whole class), with their derivatives, the tens, and with some of the higher members of the decimal series, are as follows:

1एक
éka
10दश
dáça
100शत
çatá
2द्व
dvá
20विंशति
viṅçatí
1000सहस्र
sahásra
3त्रि
trí
30त्रिंशत्
triṅçát
10,000अयुत
ayúta
4चतुर्
catúr
40चत्वारिंशत्
catvāriṅçát
100,000लक्ष
lakṣá
5पञ्च
páñca
50पञ्चाशत्
pañcāçát
1,000,000प्रयुत
prayúta
6षष्
ṣáṣ
60षष्टि
ṣaṣṭí
10,000,000कोटि
kóṭi
7सप्त
saptá
70सप्तति
saptatí
108अर्बुद
arbudá
8अष्ट
aṣṭá
80अशीति
açītí
109महार्बुद
mahārbuda
9नव
náva
90नवति
navatí
1010खर्व
kharvá
10दश
dáça
100शत
çatá
1011निखर्व
nikharva

a. The accent saptá and aṣṭá is that belonging to these words in all accentuated texts; according to the grammarians, they are sápta and áṣṭa in the later language. See below, 483.

b. The series of decimal numbers may be carried still further; but there are great differences among the different authorities with regard to their names; and there is more or less of discordance even from ayúta on.

c. Thus, in the TS. and MS. we find ayúta, niyúta, prayúta, árbuda, nyàrbuda, samudrá, mádhya, ánta, parārdhá; K. reverses the order of niyúta andprayúta, and inserts badva after nyarbuda (reading nyarbudha): these are probably the oldest recorded series.

d. In modern time, the only numbers in practical use above thousand are lakṣa (lac or lakh) and koṭi (crore); and an Indian sum is wont to be pointed thus: 123,45,67,890, to signify 123 crores, 45 lakhs, 67 thousand, eight hundred and ninety.

e. As to the alleged stem-forms pañcan etc., see below, 484. As to the form ṣakṣ instead of ṣaṣ, see above, 146b. The stem dva appears in composition and derivation also as dvā and dvi; catúr in composition is accented cátur. The older form of aṣṭa is aṣṭā: see below, 483. Forms in -çat and -çati for the tens are occasionally interchanged: e. g. viṅçat (MBh. R.), triṅçati (AB.), pañcāçati (RT.).

f. The other numbers are expressed by the various composition and syntactical combination of those given above. Thus :