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483. The numbers from 5 to 19

The numbers from 5 to 19 have no distinction of gender, nor any generic character. They are inflected, somewhat irregularly, as plurals, save in the nom.-acc., where they have no proper plural form, but show the bare stem instead. Of ṣáṣ (as of catúr), nām is the gen. ending, with mutual assimilation (198 b) of stem-final and initial of the termination. Aṣṭá (as accented in the older language) has an alternative fuller form, aṣṭā́, which is almost exclusively used in the older literature (V. and B), both in inflection and in composition (but some compounds with aṣṭa are found as early as the AV.); its nom.-acc. is aṣṭá (usual later: found in RV. once, and in AV.), or aṣṭā́ (RV.), oraṣṭāú (most usual in RV.; also in AV., B., and later).

a. The accent is in many respects peculiar. In all the accented texts, the stress of voice lies on the penult before the endings bhis, bhyas, and su, from the stems in a, whatever be the accent of the stem: thus, pañcábhis from páñca, navábhyas from náva, daçásu from dáça, navadaçábhis from návadaça, ekādaçábhyasfrom ékādaça, dvādaçásu from dvā́daça (according to the grammarians, either the penult or the final is accented in these forms in the later language). In the gen. pl., the accent is on the ending (as in that of i-, u-, and -sterns): thus, pañcadaçānā́m, saptadaçānā́m. The cases of ṣaṣ, and those made from the stem-form aṣṭā, have the accent throughout upon the ending.

b. Examples of the inflection of these words are as follows:

N.A.páñcaṣáṭaṣṭāúaṣṭá
I.pañcábhisṣaḍbhísaṣṭābhísaṣṭábhis
D. Ab.pañcábhyasṣaḍbhyásaṣṭābhyásaṣṭábhyas
G.pañcānā́mṣaṇṇā́maṣṭānā́m
L.pañcásuṣaṭsúaṣṭāsúaṣṭásu.

c. Saptá (in the later language sápta, as áṣṭa for aṣṭá) and náva and dáça, with the compounds of dáça (11–19), are declined like páñca, and with the same shift of accent (or with alternative shift to the endings, as pointed out above).