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486. Construction

Construction. As regards their construction with the nouns enumerated by them —

a. The words for 1 to 19 are in the main used adjectively, agreeing in case, and, if they distinguish gender, in gender also, with the nouns: thus, daçábhir vīrāíḥ with ten heroes; yé devā́ divy ékādaça sthá (AV.) what eleven gods of you are in heaven; pañcásu jáneṣu among the five tribes; catasṛbhir gīrbhíḥ with four songs. Rarely occur such combinations as dáça kaláçānām (RV.) ten pitchers, ṛtūnāṁ ṣaṭ (R.) six seasons.

b. The numerals above 19 are construed usually as nouns, either taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive, or standing in the singular in apposition with it: thus,çataṁ dāsīḥ or çataṁ dāsīnām a hundred slaves or a hundred of slaves; viṅçatyā́ háribhiḥ with twenty bays; ṣaṣṭyā́ṁ çarátṣu in 60 autumns; çaténa pā́çāiḥ with a hundred fetters; çatáṁ sahásram ayútaṁ nyàrbudaṁ jaghā́na çakró dásyūnām (AV.) the mighty [Indra] slew a hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a hundred million, of demons. Occasionally they are put in the plural, as if used more adjectively: thus, pañcāçadbhir bāṇāiḥ with fifty arrows.

c. In the older language, the numerals for 5 and upward are sometimes used in the nom.-acc. form (or as if indeclinably) with other cases also: thus, páñca kṛṣṭíṣuamong the five races; saptá rṣīṇām of seven bards; sahásram ṛ́ṣibhiḥ with a thousand bards; çatám pūrbhíḥ with a hundred strongholds. Sporadic instances of a like kind are also met with later.