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491. Pronouns of the first and second persons

Personal Pronouns.

The pronouns of the first and second persons are the most irregular and peculiar of all, being made up of fragments coming from various roots and combinations of roots. They have no distinction of gender.

a. Their inflection in the later language is as follows:

Singular :


1st pers.2d pers.
N.अहम्
ahám
त्वम्
tvám
A.माम्, मा
mā́m, 
त्वाम्, त्वा
tvā́m, tvā
I.मया
máyā
त्वया
tváyā
D.मह्यम्, मे
máhyam, me
तुभ्यम्, ते
túbhyam, te
Ab.मत्
mát
त्वत्
tvát
G.मम, मे
máma, me
तव, ते
táva, te
L.मयि
máyi
त्वयि
tváyi

Dual:

N. A. V.आवाम्
āvā́m
युवाम्
yuvā́m
I. D. Ab.आवाभ्याम्
āvā́bhyām
युवाभ्याम्
yuvā́bhyām
G. L.आवयोस्
āváyos
युवयोस्
yuváyos
and A. D. G.नौ
nāu
वाम्
vām

Plural:

N.वयम्
vayám
यूयम्
yūyám
A.अस्मान्, नस्
asmā́n, nas
युष्मान्, वस्
yuṣmā́n, vas
I.अस्माभिस्
asmā́bhis
युष्माभिस्
yuṣmā́bhis
D.अस्मभ्यम्, नस्
asmábhyam, nas
युष्मभ्यम्, वस्
yuṣmábhyam, vas
Ab.अस्मत्
asmát
युष्मत्
yuṣmát
G.अस्माकम्, नस्
asmā́kam, nas
युष्माकम्, वस्
yuṣmā́kam, vas
L.अस्मासु
asmāsu
युष्मासु
yuṣmāsu

b. The briefer second forms for accus., dat., and gen., in all numbers, are accentless; and hence they are not allowed to stand at the beginning of a sentence, or elsewhere where any emphasis is laid.

c. But they may be qualified by accented adjuncts, as adjectives: e. g. te jáyataḥ of thee when a conqueror, vo vṛtā́bhyaḥ for you that were confined, nas tribhyáḥto us three (all RV.).

d. The ablative mat is accentless in one or two AV. passages.