Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎Chapter VII‎ > ‎

492. Forms of the older language

Forms of the older language. All the forms given above are found also in the older language; which, however, has also others that afterward disappear from use.

a. Thus, we find a few times the instr. sing. tvā́ (only RV.: like manīṣā́ for manīṣáyā); further, the loc. or dat. sing.  (only VS.) and tvé, and the dat. or loc. pl. asmé(which is by far the commonest of these e-forms) and yuṣmé: their final e is uncombinable (or pragṛhya: 138 b). The VS. makes twice the acc. pl. fem. yuṣmā́s (as ifyuṣmā́n were too distinctively a masculine form). The datives in bhyam are in a number of cases written, and in yet others to be read as if written, with bhya, with loss of the final nasal; and in a rare instance or two we have in like manner asmā́ka and yuṣmā́ka in the gen. plural. The usual resolutions of semivowel to vowel are made, and are especially frequent in the forms of the second person (tuám for tvám etc.).

b. But the duals, above all, wear a very different aspect earlier. In Veda and Brāhmaṇa and Sūtra the nominatives are (with occasional exceptions) avam and yuvam, and only the accusatives āvā́m and yuvā́m (but in RV. the dual forms of 1st pers. chance not to occur, unless in vā́m[?], once, for āvám); the instr. in RV. is either yuvā́bhyām(occurs also once in AÇS.) or yuvābhyām; an abl. yuvát appears once in RV., and āvát twice in TS.; the gen.-loc. is in RV. (only) yuvós instead of yuváyos. Thus we have here a distinction (elsewhere unknown) of five different dual cases, by endings in part accordant with those of the other two numbers.