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493. Peculiar endings

Peculiar endings. The ending am, appearing in the nom. sing. and pl. (and Vedic du.) of these pronouns, will be found often, though only in sing., among the other pronouns. The bhyam (or hyam) of dat. sing. and pl. is met with only here; its relationship with the bhyām, bhyas, bhis of the ordinary declension is palpable. The t (ord) of the abl., though here preceded by a short vowel, is doubtless the same with that of the a-declension of nouns and adjectives. That the nom., dat., and abl. endings should be the same in sing. and pl. (and in part in the earlier du. also), only the stem to which they are added being different, is unparalleled elsewhere in the language. The element sma appearing in the plural forms will be found frequent in the inflection of the singular in other pronominal words: in fact, the compound stem asma which underlies the plural of aham seems to be the same that furnishes part of the singular forms of ayam (501), and its value of we to be a specialisation of the meaning these persons. The genitives singular, máma and táva, have no analogies elsewhere; the derivation from them of the adjectives māmaka and tāvaka (below, 516 a) suggests the possibility of their being themselves stereotyped stems. The gen. pl., asmā́kam and yuṣmā́kam, are certainly of this character: namely, neuter sing. case-forms of the adjective stemsasmāka and yuṣmāka, other cases of which are found in the Veda.