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494. Stem-forms

Stem-forms. To the Hindu grammarians, the stems of the personal pronouns are mad and asmad, and tvad and yuṣmad, because these are forms used to a certain extent, and allowed to be indefinitely used, in derivation and composition (like tad, kad, etc.: see below, under the other pronouns). Words are thus formed from them even in the older language — namely, mátkṛta and mátsakhi and asmátsakhi (RV.), tvádyoni and mattás (AV.), tvátpitṛ and tvádvivācana (TS.), tvátprasūta

and tvaddevatyà and yuvaddevatyà and yuṣmaddevatyà (ÇB.), asmaddevatya (PB.); but much more numerous are those that show the proper stem in a, or with the a lengthened to ā: thus, mā́vant; asmatrā́, asmadrúh, etc.; tváyata, tvā́vant, tvā́datta, tvāníd, tvā́vasu, tvā́hata, etc.; yuṣmā́datta, yuṣméṣita, etc.;yuvā́vant, yuvā́ku, yuvádhita, yuvā́datta, yuvā́nīta, etc. And the later language also has a few words made in the same way, as mādṛç.

a. The Vedas have certain more irregular combinations, with complete forms: thus, tvā́ṁkāma, tvāmāhuti, māmpaçyá, mamasatyá, asméhiti, ahampūrvá,ahamuttará, ahaṁyú, ahaṁsana.

b. From the stems of the grammarians come also the derivative adjectives madī́ya, tvadī́ya, asmadī́ya yuṣmadī́ya, having a possessive value: see below, 516.

c. For sva and svayám, see below, 513.