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495. Simplest demonstrative

Demonstrative Pronouns.

The simplest demonstrative, त ta, which answers also the purpose of a personal pronoun of the third person, may be taken as model of a mode of declension usual inso many pronouns and pronominal adjectives that it is fairly to be called the general pronominal declension.

a. But this root has also the special irregularity that in the nom. sing. masc. and fem. it has sás (for whose peculiar euphonic treatment see 176 a,b) and , instead of tásand tā́ (compare Gr. ὁ, ἡ, το, and Goth. sa, so, thata). Thus:

Singular:


m.n.f.
N.सस्
sás
तत्
tát
सा
sā́
A.तम्
tám
तत्
tát
ताम्
tā́m
I.तेन
téna
तया
táyā
D.तस्मै
tásmāi
तस्यै
tásyāi
Ab.तस्मात्
tásmāt
तस्यास्
tásyās
G.तस्य
tásya
तस्यास्
tásyās
L.तस्मिन्
tásmin
तस्याम्
tásyām

Dual:

N.A.V.तौ
tāú
ते
ते
I.D.Ab.ताभ्याम्
tā́bhyām
ताभ्याम्
tā́bhyām
G.L.तयोस्
táyos
तयोस्
táyos

Plural:

N.ते
तानि
tā́ni
तास्
tā́s
A.तान्
tā́n
तानि
tā́ni
तास्
tā́s
I.तैस्
tāís
ताभिस्
tā́bhis
D. Ab.तेभ्यस्
tébhyas
ताभ्यस्
tā́bhyas
G.तेषाम्
téṣām
तासाम्
tā́sām
L.तेषु
téṣu
तासु
tā́su

b. The Vedas show no other irregularities of inflection than those which belong to all stems in a and ā: namely, ténā sometimes; usually tā́ for tāú, du.; often tā́ for tā́ni, pl. neut.; usually tébhis for tāís, instr. pl.; and the ordinary resolutions. The RV. has one more case-form from the root sa, namely sásmin (occurring nearly half as often as tásmin); and ChU. has once sasmāt.