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499. Two other demonstrative stem

Two other demonstrative stems appear to contain ta as an element; and both, like the simple ta, substitute sa in the nom. sing. masc. and fem.

a. The one, tya, is tolerably common (although only a third of its possible forms occur) in RV., but rare in AV., and almost unknown later, its nom. sing., in the three genders, is syás, syā́, tyát, and it makes the accusatives tyám, tyā́m, tyát, and goes on through the remaining cases in the same manner as ta. It has in RV. the instr. fem. tyā́ (for tyáyā). Instead of syā as nom. sing. fem. is also found tyā.

b. The other is the usual demonstrative of nearer position, this here, and is in frequent use through all periods of the language. It prefixes e to the simple root, forming the nominatives eṣás, eṣā́, etát — and so on through the whole inflection.

c. The stem tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. But from eta are formed both, in the same manner as from the simple ta, only much less numerous: thus, etaddā́(ÇB.), etadartha, etc., from the so-called stem etat; and etādṛ́ç and etā́vant from eta. And eṣa, like sa (498), is used to qualify pronouns of the 1st and 2d persons: e. g. eṣā ’ham, ete vayam.