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13. In some cases

In some cases, however, there is more or less abbreviation or disguise of the independent form of a consonant-sign in combination. Thus,

a. Of क k in क्त kta, क्ल kla; and in क्ण kṇa etc.

b. Of त t in त्त tta;

c. Of द d in द्ग dga, द्न dna, etc;

d. Of म m and य y, when following other consonants: thus, क्य kya, क्म kma, ङ्य ñya, द्म dma, द्य dya, ह्म hma, ह्य hya, छ्य chya, ड्य ḍhya.

e. Of श ç, which generally becomes Sanskrit grammar old ç.png when followed by a consonant: thus, Sanskrit grammar old çca.png çca, Sanskrit grammar old çna.png çna, Sanskrit grammar old çva.png çva, Sanskrit grammar old çya.png çya. The same change is usual when a vowel-sign is added below: thus Sanskrit grammar old çu.png çu, Sanskrit grammar old çṛ.png çṛ.

f. Other combinations, of not quite obvious value, are ण्ण ṇṇa, ल्ल lla, द्ध ddha, द्भ dbha, ष्ट ṣṭa, ष्ठ ṣṭha; and the compounds of ह h: as ह्ण hṇa, ह्न hna.

g. In a case or two, no trace of the constituent letters in recognizable: thus, क्ष kṣa, ज्ञ jña.