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5. The characters

The characters of the devanāgarī alphabet, and the European letters which will be used in transliterating them, are as follows:


1  a2  ā
palatal3  i4  ī
labial5  u6  ū
lingual7  8  
dental9  [10  [ḹ]
diphthongspalatal11  e12  āi
labial13  o14  āu
Visarga15 अः 
Anusvāra16 अं, अँ ṅ or ṁ (see 73 c).

surdsurd asp.sonantson.asp.nasal
Mutesguttural17  k18  kh19  g20  gh21  
palatal22  c23  ch24  j25  jh26  ñ
lingual27  28  ṭh29  30  ḍh31  
dental32  t33  th34  d35  dh36  n
labial37  p38  ph39  b40  bh41  m
Semivowelspalatal42  y
lingual43  r
dental44  l
labial45  v
Sibilantspalatal46  ç
dental48  s
Aspiration49  h

a. To these may be added a lingual ḻ ळ, which in some of the Vedic texts takes the place of ड ḍ when occurring between two vowels (54).