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12. Under B

Under B, it is to be noticed that the consonant combinations are for the most part not at all difficult to make or to recognize for one who is familiar with the simple signs. The characteristic part of a consonant-sign that is to be added to another is taken (to the exclusion of the horizontal or of the perpendicular framing-line, or of both), and they are put together according to convenience, either side by side, or one above the other; in a few combinations either arrangement is allowed. The consonant that is to be pronounced first is set before the other in the one order, and above it in the other order.

a. Examples of side-by-side arrangement are: ग्ग gga, ज्ज jja, प्य pya, न्म nma, त्थ ttha, भ्य bhya, स्क ska, ष्ण ṣṇa, त्क tka.

b. Examples of the above-and-below arrangement are: क्क kka, क्व kva, च्च cca, ञ्ज ñja, द्द dda, प्त pta, त्न tna, त्व tva.