127. An a-vowel combines

An a-vowel combines with a following i-vowel to ए e; with an u-vowel, to ओ o; with ऋ ṛ, to अर् ar; with ऌ ḷ (theoretically), to अल् al; with ए e or ऐ āi, to ऐ āi; with ओ o or औ āu, to औ āu. Examples are:

राजेन्द्र rājendra (rāja-indra);

हितोपदेशः hitopadeçaḥ (hita-upadeçaḥ);

महर्षिः maharṣiḥ (mahā-ṛṣiḥ);

सैव sāi ’va (sā + eva);

राजैश्वर्यम् rājāiçvaryam (rājā-āiçvaryam);

दिवौकसः divāukasaḥ (divā-okasaḥ);

ज्वरौषधम् jvarāuṣadham (jvara-āuṣadham).

a. In the Vedic texts, the vowel ṛ is ordinarily written unchanged after the a-vowel, which, if long, is shortened: thus, mahaṛṣiḥ instead of maharṣiḥ. The two vowels, however, are usually pronounced as one syllable.

b. When successive words like indra ā ihi are to be combined, the first combination, to indrā, is made first, and the result is indre” ’hi (not indrāi” ’hi, from indra e ’hi).