251. Certain a-roots

Certain ā-roots, because of their peculiar exchanges with ī and i-forms, especially in forming the present stem, are given by the Hindu grammarians as roots ending in e or āi or o. Thus, from 2 dhā suck (dhe) come the present dháyati and participle and gerund dhītá, dhītvā́; the other forms are made from dhā, as dadhus, adhāt, dhāsyati, dhā́tave, dhāpayati. From 2 gā sing (gāi) come the present gā́yati, the participle and gerund gītá and gītvā́, and passive gīyáte, and the other forms from gā. From 3 dā cut(do) come the present dyáti and participle ditá or diná, and the other forms from dā. The irregularities of these roots will be treated below, under the various formations (see especially 761 d ff.).