138. Certain final vowels

Certain final vowels, moreover, are uncombinable (pragṛhya), or maintain themselves unchanged before any following vowel. Thus,

a. The vowels ī, ū, and e are dual endings, both of declensional and of conjugational forms. Thus, bandhū āsāte imāu; girī ārohatam.

b. The pronoun amī (nom. pl.: 501); and the Vedic pronominal forms asmé, yuṣmé, tvé (492 a).

c. A final o made by combination of a final a-vowel with the particle u (1122b); thus, atho, mo, no.

d. A final ī of a Vedic locative case from an i-stem (336f).

e. A protracted final vowel (78).

f. The final, or only, vowel of an interjection, as aho, he, ā, i, u.

g. The older language shows occasional exceptions to these rules: thus, a dual ī combined with a following i, as nṛpátī ’va; an a elided after o, as átho ‘si; a locative ī turned into a semivowel, as védy asyā́m.