192. Especially, a preposition

Especially, a preposition or similar prefix to a root, if it contain r or end in euphonic r for s (174), very often lingualizes the n of a root or of its derived stems and forms. Thus:

a. The initial n of a root is usually and regularly so altered, in all forms and derivatives, after parā, pari, pra, nir (for nis), antar, dur (for dus): thus, párā ṇaya, pári ṇīyate, prá ṇudasva; parāṇutti, pariṇāma, praṇavá, nirṇíj, durṇáça. Roots suffering this change are written with initial ṇ in the native root-lists. The only exceptions of importance are nṛt, nabh, nand, and naç when its ç becomes ṣ (as in pránaṣṭa).

b. The final n of a root is lingualized in some of the forms of an and han: thus, prā́ ’ṇiti, prāṇá, prá haṇyate, praháṇana.

c. The class-signs nu and nā are altered after the roots hi and mī́: thus, pári hiṇomi, prá miṇanti (but the latter not in the Veda).

d. The 1st sing. impv. ending āni is sometimes altered: thus, prá bhavāṇi.

e. Derivatives by suffixes containing n sometimes have ṇ by influence of a preposition: thus, prayā́ṇa.

f. The n of the preposition ni is sometimes altered, like the initial of a root, after another preposition: thus, praṇipāta, praṇidhi.