235. Guna and Vrddhi

Guṇa and Vṛddhi.

The so-called guṇa and vṛddhi-changes are the most regular and frequent of vowel-changes, being of constant occurrence both in inflection and in derivation.

a. A guṇa-vowel (guṇa secondary quality) differs from the corresponding simple vowel by a prefixed a-element which is combined with the other according to the usual rules; a vṛddhi-vowel (vṛddhi growth, increment), by the further prefixion of a to the guṇa-vowel. Thus, of इ i or ई ī the corresponding guṇa is (a+i=) ए e; the corresponding vṛddhi is (a+e=) ऐ āi. But in all gunating processes अ a remains unchanged—or, as it is sometimes expressed, अ a is its own guṇa; आ ā, of course, remains unchanged for both guṇa and vṛddhi.