233. Instances are sometimes

a. Instances are sometimes met with of apparent loss (perhaps after conversion to a semivowel) of i or u before y or v respectively. Thus, in the Brāhmaṇas, tú and nú with following vāí etc. often made tvāí, nvāí (also tvā́vá, ánvāí); and other examples from the older language are anvart- (anu + √vart); paryan, paryanti, paryāyāt, paryāṇa (pari + yan, etc.); abhyàrti (abhi + iyarti); antaryāt (antar + iyāt); cārvāc, cārvāka, cārvadana (cāru + vāc, etc.); kyànt for kíyant; dvyoga (dvi + yoga); anvā, anvāsana (anu + vā, etc.); probably vyùnoti for ví yunoti (RV.), urváçī (uru-vaçī), çíçvarī for çíçu-varī (RV.); vyāmá (vi + yāma); and the late svarṇa for suvarṇa. More anomalous abbreviations are the common tṛcá (tri + ṛca); and dvṛca (dvi + ṛca: S.) and treṇī (tri + eṇī: Āpast.).

Further, certain cases of the loss of a sibilant require notice. Thus:

b. According to the Hindu grammarians, the s of s-aorist stems is lost after a short vowel in the 2d and 3d sing. middle: thus, adithās and adita (1st sing. adiṣi), akṛthās and akṛta (1st sing. akṛṣi). It is, however, probably that such cases are to be explained in a different manner: see 834 a.

c. The s between two mutes is lost in all combinations of the roots sthā and stambh with the prefix ud: thus, út thus, útthita, út thāpaya, úttabdha, etc.

d. The same omission is now and then made in other similar cases: thus cit kámbhanena (for skámbh-: RV.); tasmāt tute (for stute) and puroruk tuta (for stuta: K.); the compounds ṛkthā (ṛk + sthā: PB.) and utphulin̄ga; the derivative utphāla (√sphal). On the other hand, we may have vidyút stanáyantī (RV.), utsthala, kakutstha, etc.

e. So also the tense-sign of the s-aorist is lost after a final consonant of a root before the initial consonant of an ending: thus, achāntta (and for this, by 231, achānta) for achāntsta, çāpta for çāpsta, tāptam for tāpstam, abhākta for abhāksta, amāuktam for amāukstam. These are the only quotable cases: compare 883.

f. A final s of root or tense-stem is in a few instances lost after a sonant aspirate, and the combination of mutes is then made as if no sibilant had ever intervened. Thus, from the root ghas, with omission of the vowel and then of the final sibilant, we have the form gdha (for ghs-ta: 3d sing. mid.), the participle gdha (in agdhā́d), and the derivative ghdi (for ghs-ti; in sá-gdhi); and further, from the reduplicated form of the same root, or √jakṣ, we have jagdha, jagdhum, jagdhvā, jagdhi (from jaghs-ta etc.); also, in like manner, from baps, reduplication of bhas, the form babdhām (for babhs-tām). According to the Hindu grammarians, the same utter loss of the aorist-sign s takes place after a final sonant aspirate of a root before an ending beginning with t or th: thus, from √rudh, s-aorist stem arāuts act. and aruts mid., come the active dual and plural persons arāuddham and arāuddhām and arāuddha, and the middle singular persons aruddhās and aruddha. None of the active forms, however, have been found quotable from the literature, ancient or modern; and the middle forms admit also of a different explanation: see 834, 883.