230. Other cases of extension

Other cases of extension of consonant-groups, required by some of the grammatical authorities, are the following:

a. Between a non-nasal and a nasal mute, the insertion of so-called yamas (twins), or nasal counterparts, is taught by the Prātiçākhyas (and assumed in Pāṇini’s commentary): see APr. i. 99, note.

b. Between h and a following nasal mute the Prātiçākhyas teach the insertion of a nasal sound called a nāsikya: see APr. i. 100, note.

c. Between r and a following nasal consonant the Prātiçākhyas teach the insertion of a svarabhakti or vowel-fragment: see APr. i. 101–2, note.

d. Some authorities assume this insertion only before a spirant; the others regard it as twice as long before a spirant as before any other consonant—namely, a half or a quarter mora before the former, a quarter or an eight before the latter. One (VPr.) admits it after l as well as r. It is variously described as a fragment of the vowel a or of ṛ (or ḷ).

e. The RPr. puts a svarabhakti also between a sonant consonant and a following mute or spirant; and APr. introduces an element called sphoṭana (distinguisher) between a guttural and a preceding mute of another class.