259. Reduplication of a root

Reduplication.

Reduplication of a root (originating doubtless in its complete repetition) has come to be a method of radical increment or strengthening in various formative processes: namely,

a. in present-stem formation (642 ff.): as dádāmi, bibhármi;

b. in perfect-stem formation, almost universally (782 ff.): as tatā́na, dadhāú, cakā́ra, riréca, lulópa;

c. in aorist-stem formation (856 ff.): as ádīdharam, ácucyavam;

d. in intensive and desiderative-stem formation, throughout (1000 ff., 1026 ff.): as ján̄ghanti, jóhavīti, marmṛjyáte; pípāsati, jíghāṅsati;

e. in the formation of derivative noun-stems (1143 e): as pápri, cárcara, sāsahí, cikitú, malimlucá.

f. Rules for the treatment of reduplication in these several cases will be given in the proper connection below.