223. The roots of the two classes

The roots of the two classes, as shown in their forms found in use, are:

a. of the first or duh-class: dah, dih, duh, druh, snuh, snih (and the final of uṣṇíh is similarly treated);

b. of the second or ruh-class: vah, sah, mih, rih or lih, guh, ruh, dṛṅh, tṛṅh, bṛh, baṅh, spṛh (?).

c. But muh forms also (not in RV.) the participle mūḍha and agent-noun mūḍhár, as well as mugdhá and mugdhár; and druh and snih are allowed by the grammarians to do likewise: such forms as drūḍha and snīḍha, however, have not been met with in use.

d. From roots of the ruh-class we find also in the Veda the forms gartārúk, nom. sing., and prāṇadhṛ́k and dadhṛ́k; and hence puruspṛ́k (the only occurrence) does not certainly prove √spṛh to be of the duh-class.

e. A number of other h-roots are not proved by their occurring forms to belong to either class; they, too, are with more or less confidence assigned to the one or the other by comparison with the related languages.

f. In derivation, before certain suffixes (216), we have gh instead of h from verbs of either class.

g. The root nah comes from original dh instead of gh, and its reversion is accordingly to a dental mute: thus, natsyā́mi, naddhá, upānádbhis, upānadyuga, anupānatka. So also the root grah comes from (early Vedic) grabh, and shows labials in many forms and derivatives (though it is assimilated to other h-roots in the desiderative stem jighṛkṣa). In like manner, h is used for dh in some of the forms and derivatives of √dvā put; and further analogous facts are the stem kakuhá beside kakubhá, the double imperative ending dhi and hi, and the dative máhyam beside túbhyam (491).