111. Treatment of the finals of stems

a. Moreover, before case-endings beginning with bh and s (namely bhyām, bhis, bhyas, su), the treatment of the finals of stems is in general the same as in the combinations of words (pada) with one another—whence those endings are sometimes called pada-endings, and the cases they form are known as pada-cases.

b. The importance of this distinction in somewhat exaggerated by the ordinary statement of it. In fact, dh is the only sonant mute initial of an ending occurring in conjugation, as bh in declension; and the difference of their treatment is in part owing to the one coming into collision usually with the final of a root and the other of an ending, and in part to the fact that dh, as a dental, is more assimilable to palatals and linguals than bh. A more marked and problematic distinction is made between su and the verbal endings si, sva, etc., especially after palatal sounds and ṣ.

c. Further, before certain of the suffixes of derivation the final of a stem is sometimes treated in the same manner as that of a word in composition.

d. This is especially the case before secondary suffixes having a markedly distinct office, like the possessive mant and vant, the abstract-making tva, the suffix of material maya, and so on; and it is much more frequent in the later language than in the earlier. The examples are sporadic in character, and no rule can be given to cover them: for details, see the various suffixes, in chap. XVII. In the RV. (as may be mentioned here) the only examples are vidyúnmant (beside garútmant, kakúdmant, etc.), pṛ́ṣadvant (beside datvánt, marútvant, etc.), dhṛṣadvín (beside namasvín etc.), and ahaṁyú, kiṁyú, çaṁyú, and aṅhoyú, duvoyú, áskṛdhoyu (beside namasyú, vacasyú, etc.); and the AV. adds only sáhovan (RV. savā́van).