39. Guttural series

Guttural series: क् k, ख् kh, ग् g, घ् gh, ङ् n̄. These are the ordinary European k and g-sounds, with their corresponding aspirates and nasal (the last, like English ng insinging).

a. The gutturals are defined by the Prātiçākhyas as made by contact of the base of the tongue with the base of the jaw, and they are called, from the former organ, jihvāmūlīya tongue-root sounds. The Paninean scheme describes them simply as made in the throat (kaṇṭha). From the euphonic influence of a k on a following s (below, 180), we may perhaps infer that in their utterance the tongue was well drawn back in the mouth.