23. Sanskrit adds two others

The ṛ- and ḷ-vowels. To the three simple vowels already mentioned the Sanskrit adds two others, the ṛ-vowel and the ḷ-vowel, plainly generated by the abbreviation of syllables containing respectively a र् r or ल् l along with another vowel: the ऋ ṛ coming almost always (see 237, 241–3) from अर् ar or र ra, the ḷ from अल् al.

a. Some of the Hindu grammarians add to the alphabet also a long ḷ: but this is only for the sake of an artificial symmetry, since the sound does not occur in a single genuine word in the language.